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|Identity Management and Biometrics|
Our identity is key to securing information so the ability to securely establish our identity and create trust has become critical. Whether we are moving through an airport, crossing a border, registering to vote or conducting a financial transaction, the ability to positively assert our identity has become a sort of global “currency.”
It is commonly accepted that there are three approaches available to prove a person’s identity and to provide “the right person with the right privileges, the right access at the right time”. These identity proving approaches, which establish the genuineness of the identity, are:
Something you have
Something you know
Something you are
The use of the third approach, in addition to the others, has significant advantages. Without sophisticated means, biometrics are difficult to share, steal or forge and cannot be forgotten or lost. This latter solution provides thus a higher security level in identity prove.
Here we briefly discuss the potential of biometrics to protect citizen’s rights and enable financial inclusion.
Biometrics and Citizen’s Rights
The case of Vivian Alvarez  in Australia highlights this point. Vivian was an Australian citizen of Philippine extraction who after sustaining a head injury lost her memory. She had no identification document and was deemed to be an illegal immigrant by Australian authorities and was deported to the Philippines. Under her actual identity she was declared a missing person and was subsequently identified by a priest watching a missing persons program on television who knew her as the “illegal immigrant”.
After several hundreds of man hours work by Australian authorities Vivian Alvarez had her citizenship rights restored. The subsequent government inquiry advocated the use biometric technology to prevent such incidents in the future. Had facial biometrics been used for as part of a registry for missing persons integrated to a biometric database of individuals who outstayed visas Vivian Alvarez could have been quickly established as a bona fide Australian Citizen.
The Alvarez case was not alone in Australia and it led to the wholesale reorganization of immigration and citizenship processes which now incorporate biometrics.
Interestingly societies where citizens’ rights and privacy had been abused in the past have been very proactive in adopting biometrics as a means of privacy and administering government services notably Estonia, which was a police state under Soviet rule so its citizens understandably have concerns about protecting their privacy. Yet is citizens have enthusiastically adopted biometrics as part of their national identity scheme.
Biometrics Enabling Financial Inclusion in India
UID is designed to transform Indian society by providing an identity to address the fact that: